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Corresponding author : Hannah Latta, : hlla g. A recent victory with respect to teen sexual behavior is the reduction of the national teen birth rate. Inthere were Bythis rate plummeted to Averages, however, do not reflect state-level variation. For example, inKentucky reported In this paper divergent outcomes in teen sexual behavior are reviewed which are likely due to numerous factors including socioeconomic status, educational attainment, and history of abuse.

It is plausible that differentials in regional outcomes can be explained by the regional variations in social, economic and educational variables, which is the subject of a forthcoming paper.

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In the United States, premarital teen sexual activity has traditionally been considered a taboo topic. Even when changing ideologies during the late 20 th century prompted parents to modify their approach to this topic, they addressed sexual behavior differentially with their daughters and sons Kennedy, Daughters were more likely to receive information concerning sexual behavior before they engaged in sexual intercourse, whereas sons were more likely to receive this information after they had already begun having sex Moore et al, An increasingly liberal attitude toward sexual behaviour resulted in rising teen pregnancy rates during the s and s Kennedy, Inthe national teen birth rate was a staggering Since that year, a steady decline in the national teen pregnancy and birth rates has been observed.

InSex dating in Latta national teen birth rate was substantially lower at The decline in national teen pregnancy and birth rates has been reflected in a similar trend at the state level. However, teen birth rates in some states still remain high.

Teen birth rates in in rural states such as Kentucky and Tennessee were In that same year, by comparison, more urban states such as New York and Florida reported teen birth rates of This discrepancy between rural and urban states suggests the presence of some regional differences. In Sex dating in Latta effort to understand these differences, this report will explore the following factors, by region: adolescent sexual behaviors, attitudes toward sex, and sexual education. Despite the decrease in adolescent pregnancy and birth rates, unplanned teen births still have many negative economic and social outcomes.

Even if these women are able to complete their education by earning a GED, it takes them longer to do so, and this accomplishment is often not viewed as favorably by potential employers as is a high school diploma National Research Council US Panel on Adolescent Pregnancy and Childbearing, Furthermore, adolescent bodies are often not mature enough to carry a baby to full term, and these teen mothers and their babies often suffer costly health consequences University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute, Teen pregnancy and birth are not the only consequences that result from sexual activity.

Unfortunately, STDs such as chlamydia, gonorrhea, and syphilis often accompany these teens throughout high school and into early adulthood. With rates of STDs at an all-time national high and teens representing a large majority of newly-diagnosed STD cases, there are clearly misconceptions regarding sexual activity and its consequences that prevail among members of this population CDC STD Surveillance Report. Similar disturbing trends exist for the incidence of HIV and sexual violence in this age group, which will be addressed in more detail later in this report.

In this paper a review and discussion of the negative outcomes of teens sexual behaviour is provided. In a second paper forthcoming Regional differentials in teens sexual outcomes are explored and discussed.

These states were chosen for their differences in percentage of population residing in rural counties, percentage of rural counties, sexual education policies, and regional location in the United States.

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Initially, Google Scholar searches were conducted to identify appropriate literature sources and databases for this paper. Within each of these databases, subject-specific searches were conducted to ascertain the appropriate data and reports for this review.

National and state teen pregnancy rates were searched using The National Campaign database, and national, state, and county teen birth rates were searched using the HIW database. State sexual education policies were searched using the Guttmacher Institute and the Kaiser Family Foundation.

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Adolescence is a key developmental phase in which teenagers experience ificant physical changes. However, equally impactful on adolescent development is an unhealthy relationship filled with physical, sexual, and emotional abuse. This othering can manifest itself in the form of excess sexual attention from their older peers.

Whether wanted or not, this occurrence can lead to unfortunate consequences if teens are ill-prepared to handle the situation. This is related to the critical changes in brain development that accompany and more importantly, follow the physical changes manifested in their bodies.

Even when considering older adolescents whose frontal lobes may be in the more advanced stages of development, drugs and alcohol can render their decision-making capabilities ineffective. Although the prevalence of high schoolers who engaged in sexual intercourse when under the influence of these substances has ificantly decreased sincethe rate still remained high at Sex dating in Latta Another factor influencing the sexual behavior of teenagers aged is the attitude of their peers regarding sexual intercourse. In Some individuals who do not experience precocious puberty are still more likely to have sexual relations during their teenage years.

Males that can be classified into this group include those who consistently embody traditional ideals of masculinity such as the idea that getting a girl pregnant is associated with manhood Rolleri, Additionally, members of this group often view condom use as unnecessary, have multiple sexual partners over the course of a year, and do not assume active roles in their personal health Rolleri, Females who are more likely to practice unsafe sexual behavior are also an important group within this Oftentimes, these girls are subjected to abuse by their sexual partners, experience unplanned pregnancy, and are not assertive when communicating with their partners, especially concerning sexual intercourse Rolleri, Another critical factor influencing teens is their parents.

Parental sexual behavior is useful when considering adolescents who have been sexually abused at a young age, especially when this abuse is defined as coercive sexual intercourse Kreipe, These individuals are more likely to experience unplanned pregnancy as teens and have a greater of sexual partners, because they Sex dating in Latta use this abuse experience as a reason for engaging in sexual intercourse Kreipe, Furthermore, these partners are often older individuals; such sexual relationships are associated with decreased contraceptive use and increased pregnancy rates Kreipe, Educators should also identify the positive consequences of practicing safe sex that does not occur under the influence of alcohol or drugs Kreipe, Focusing on a complex array of factors during these instructional events is also key to their efficacy.

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Educators should also present the issue of dating violence, including discussion of risk and protective factors related to this event. Individual health is important to consider in pregnancy, since maternal health is a known determinant of fetal health. This becomes especially important during teenage pregnancy, since adolescent mothers often experience a whole host of other problems including anemia, inability to gain weight, and gestational hypertension simply by virtue of their age University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute, Sadly, their babies experience resulting health consequences in the form of low birthweight, Sex dating in Latta, and later developmental issues University of Wisconsin Population Health Institute, Additionally, these teen mothers have a strikingly similar socioeconomic profile: most are often raised by only one parent, hail from impoverished homes, and have uneducated parents when compared to women who gave birth to children after their teenage years National Research Council, Cervical cell maturity in females is directly related to age; therefore, younger women possess more immature cervical cells Hwang et al, One particularly interesting fact is that sexually active individuals aged for 10 million of the 20 million new STD cases in the United States each year ACT for Youth Center of Excellence, Not only is this disturbing to consider in light of the young age of these individuals, but it is also concerning because this group represents only one-fourth of the sexually experienced U.

Among to year-olds alone, overwere diagnosed with gonorrhea, chlamydia, and syphilis in CDC, These statistics are supported by the ificantly declining rate of condom use among high school students for the past twelve years CDC, Further support for the HIV statistic can be found in the declining prevalence of high schoolers who have been tested for this infection. From tothe percentage of this age group who received HIV testing dropped from This disproportionate rate of infection also speaks directly to the sexual education or more appropriately, lack thereof that adolescents are receiving.

Thus, their evidence suggests the importance of directing federal funding to the development of comprehensive sex-ed programs Stanger-Hall and Hall, In9. Unfortunately, physical and psychological effects are not the only of dating violence; an equally, if not more, concerning consequence is that high school-aged victims are more likely to experience sexual violence during their college years CDC, Key factors related to home life and peer relationships influence perpetrators of dating violence.

Individuals who were raised in a violent home atmosphere or who have a history of violent behavior themselves are particularly likely to subject their partner to dating violence CDC, If their peers are involved in romantic relationships corrupted by intimate partner violence or if these individuals interact violently with their peers, they are also more likely to perpetrate dating violence CDC, One of the most effective methods for preventing and decreasing the occurrence of dating violence is through education CDC, This education should not be limited to an academic institution, however.

Sexually Transmitted Diseases. Bell, R. Marriage and Family Living23 4 Boonstra, H. Guttmacher Policy Review, 17 3 Castle, M. Reproductive Health8 1 Accessed on [insert date]. Sexually Transmitted Disease Surveillance Atlanta: U. Department of Health and Human Services; Available at: www. Accessed on [23 September ]. Center for Youth Wellness. Felitti, V. American Journal of Preventive Medicine14 4 Fox, G. Family Relations29 1 Guttmacher Institute. Sex and HIV Education. State Facts about Abortion: Kentucky. State Facts about Abortion: New York. Births: females years per 1, National Center for Health Statistics Hoffman, S.

The Urban Institute. Hwang, L. Factors that influence the rate of epithelial maturation in the cervix of healthy young women. Johnson, S. Kaiser Family Foundation The Henry J. Kaiser Sex dating in Latta Foundation. Kennedy, B. The impact of parents and peers on teenage sexual activity Doctoral dissertation. Paper Kirby, D. Which Can You Change? Kreipe, R. McNeely, C. The teen years explained: A guide to healthy adolescent development.

Moore, K. Parental attitudes and the occurrence of early sexual activity. Journal of Marriage and the Family48, Hofferth, S. Newport, F. Mississippi is Most Religious U. Gallup, Inc. Office of Rural Health Policy. Olson, E. Identifying and supporting young women experiencing dating violence: What health practitioners should be doing NOW. Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Psychology17 2 Rolleri, L.

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