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Try out PMC Labs and tell us what you think. Learn More. Sexually transmitted infections STIs may be either asymptomatic or symptomatic. Regardless of Married ladies seeking sex Geneva presence or absence of symptoms all STIs can lead to major complications if left untreated. To assess the care seeking behaviour and barriers to accessing services for sexual health problems among young married women in rural areas of Thiruvarur district of Tamil Nadu state in India.
A community based cross-sectional study was conducted in 28 villages selected using multistage sampling technique for selecting women in the age group of 15—24 years during July —April Around three-fourth of the women received treatment for sexual health problems.
Family tradition and poor socioeconomic conditions of the family appear to be the main reasons for not utilizing the health facility for sexual health problems. Integrated approach is strongly suggested for creating awareness to control the spread of sexual health problems among young people.
Sexually transmitted infections STI are now recognized as a serious global threat to the health of populations. Sexually transmitted infections have a major negative impact on sexual and reproductive health worldwide.
According to WHO estimates, million new cases of curable STIs syphilis, gonorrhoea, chlamydia, and trichomoniasis occur annually throughout the world in adults aged 15—49 years [ 1 ]. RTIs and STIs are affecting health, fertility, infant mortality, postorbital and puerperal sepsis, ectopic pregnancy, fatal and prenatal death, cervical cancer, infertility, chronic physical pain, emotional distress, and social rejection in women. There are million new cases of largely treatable sexually transmitted bacterial infections occurring annually [ 3 ], million of them among young people. Many go untreated due to difficulties in diagnosis and lack of access to competent, affordable services.
Many of these infections increase the risk of HIV transmission. Reproductive tract infections RTIs are recognized as a major public health problem and rank second after maternal morbidity and mortality as the cause of healthy life loss among sexually active women of reproductive age in developing countries [ 4 ]. These RTIs carry a high economic burden as well as enormous health consequences. RTIs have overlapping called endogenous, sexually transmitted and iatrogenic, reflecting how they are acquired and spread [ 5 ]. RTIs are most important causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality.
Serious complications of these RTIs include entopic pregnancy, pelvic inflammatory diseases, preterm labor, miscarriage, still birth, congenital infection, infertility, genital cancer, and risk of HIV infection [ 6 ]. Women living in medium economic level and low socioeconomic status were all related to having RTIs symptoms [ 78 ]. Poverty and marginalization were associated with STIs and bacterial vaginosis [ 9 ].
Generally women with self-reported symptoms of sexual morbidity do not seek treatment due to existing taboos and inhibitions regarding sexual and reproductive health. They hesitate to discuss the reproductive problem especially due to shame and embarrassment [ 10 ]. Untreated infection can not only lead to pelvic inflammatory disease, ectopic pregnancy, infertility, and cervical cancer but also fetal loss, health problem of new born, and increased risk of HIV infection. In addition to health consequences, women experience social consequences in terms of emotional distress related to gynecological morbidity.
A recent study of young married women aged 16—22 years in a rural community in Tamil Nadu reports a very high level of morbidity. Clinical examination also confirmed STIs among the majority of them [ 11 ]. Adolescent women in India and Nepal report relatively high rates of gynecological morbidities, especially in the settings where girls have limited access to adequate health care [ 12 ]. The Indian caste system is a highly complex institution, though social institutions resembling caste in one respect or another are not difficult to find elsewhere, but caste is an exclusively Indian phenomenon.
At present, the scheduled castes in India constitute around Almost one-third of them live below poverty line and do not have access even to the basic needs like food, clothing, and shelter; they constitute a major part of our labor force and are generally engaged in petty occupations like agriculture labor, construction work, hawking, and other low grade jobs [ 14 ]. There is a general consensus that the health status of the scheduled castes population is very poor and the worst [ 15 ]. Under this circumstance, the present study made an attempt to assess the care seeking behaviour and barriers to accessing services for sexual health problems among young married women in rural areas of Thiruvarur Married ladies seeking sex Geneva of Tamil Nadu state in India.
According to census, Thiruvarur district was the highest scheduled castes populated district and also backward district in Tamil Nadu state. All women were living with their husbands and had given at least one birth one year prior to the survey. Thiruvarur district had totally ten blocks, which comprise revenue villages. In the first stage, five blocks were selected which represent the geographical distribution of the study district. The selected blocks were Nannilam from north, Thiruvarur from east, Tiruturaipundi from south, Valangaiman from west, and Mannargudi from central part of the study district.
There were revenue villages in these selected five blocks. In the second stage, all the villages which had 50 percent of scheduled castes population were selected. That is, 87 villages were selected. Thus, 28 villages were selected for the research purpose.
In the third stage, house listing operation was carried out prior to the data collection to provide the necessary frame for selecting the households for the study. Totally, houses were listed in all the five blocks. Identification of eligible young married women 15—24 years in each household was the next step in the research.
There were households with the target population 39 households had two couples. Totally, women in the age group of 15—24 were identified. That is, respondents were selected for the interview. Totally, respondents completed the interview and 32 respondents declined to participate in the interview. The response rate of the research study was The authors collected all the required data from the respondents with the help of local trained female workers. Data were entered and analyzed using SPSS software version Categorical variables were presented as frequencies and percentages.
Bivariate analysis involved the use of the Chi-square test for assessing the ificance of associations between care seeking behavior of women and sociodemographic variables. See Figure 1. All the respondents were asked whether they had experienced any kind of symptoms of RTIs for the last six months prior to the survey and the are tabulated in Table 1.
The result reveals that It was observed that the majority of the women in the study area had the tendency of seeking treatment for their RTI problems Table 2 shows the percentage of women who sought treatment of RTIs according to their background characteristics. The result indicates that younger women were more likely to receive treatment for RTIs Women's education had a positive relationship with treatment seeking behaviour.
The nonagricultural laborers The women whose age at marriage was 22 and above were more likely to receive treatment of RTIs The proportion of women who sought treatment of RTIs decreased sharply by birth order. The higher birth order pregnancy women were less likely to receive treatment of RTIs About Percentage distribution of care seeking behaviour of women who experienced RTIs according to their background characteristics. Table 3 reveals that 8.
Among women who experienced STIs, only 4. A ificant portion of women had sought treatment Table 4 shows the percentage of women who sought treatment of STIs according to their background characteristics. It is observed that younger women were much more likely to receive treatment for their STIs than the older women.
The result depicts that women in age group 18—20 were more likely to receive treatment of STIs Overwhelming proportion of women received treatment of STIs who completed secondary education The treatment of STIs was more pronounced among employed women than among their counterparts. The women whose age at marriage was 22 and above were less likely to receive treatment of STIs The higher birth order among women was less likely to receive treatment of STIs Women's exposure to mass media had a negative relationship with treatment seeking behaviour.
Percentage distribution of care seeking behavior of women who experienced STIs according to their background characteristics.
Unfortunately, symptoms and s of many infections may not appear until it is too late to avoid such consequences and damage to the reproductive organs. The morbidity associated with RTIs also affects the economic productivity and quality of life of many individual women and men and, consequently, of whole communities [ 16 ]. Health-seeking behaviour is influenced by a group of factors that can be classified according to cultural and sociodemographic influences, economic conditions, physical and financial accessibility, healthcare services, and the degree of women's autonomy [ 2021 ].
The role of socioeconomic status in the development of STIs has been highlighted in a of studies [ 22 — 24 ]. Low socioeconomic status is associated with greater high risk sexual behaviour and this would lead to a higher incidence of STIs [ 25 ]. Patients who delayed seeking treatment, including those who treated themselves prior to seeking health care, were female, had friends who had waited before seeking treatment, held misconceptions about the cause of STIs, perceived STIs not to be serious, valued personal autonomy in sexual behavior less, and expected to encounter problems in their relationships if they refused to have sex [ 26 ].
Women with a lower educational background delayed seeking care at the first STI provider ificantly longer than women with higher education, and urban women sought care ificantly earlier than women from rural or remote areas [ 27 ]. In India, married women are reluctant to seek medical treatment because of lack of privacy, lack of a female doctor at the health facility, the cost of treatment, and their subordinate social status [ 28 ]. This reluctance is exacerbated when symptoms are embarrassing, as they are with RTIs, especially among young women [ 29 ].
The health seeking behavior of women is not as improved as desired. The married women are reluctant to seek medical treatment because of lack of privacy, lack of female doctors at the health facility, cost of treatment, and their inferior social status. RTIs have an additional element of shame and humiliation for many women because they are considered unclean. Women do not seek treatment for sexual health problems due to lack of awareness, asymptomatic nature of RTIs, and lack of treatment facilities [ 3031 ].
Moreover, Married ladies seeking sex Geneva transmitted infections and reproductive tract infections are the diseases which are associated with some sort of sociocultural stigmas [ 32 ]. Therefore, more information is required in rural areas through mass media and also more healthcare facilities at the door step of rural women is best-touted option. Likewise, behaviour and communication change and proper sexual health information are the best options to reduce the prevalence of sexual health problems among rural women.
There is need for female counselor at each health facility to discuss the sexual health problems and explain Married ladies seeking sex Geneva treatment within a short period of time. Health educators should adopt this strategy. Appropriate preventive strategies are essential and should be of highest priority because of the potential of such infections to spread particularly among the youth.Married ladies seeking sex Geneva
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Geographic variation and determinants of help seeking behaviour among married women subjected to intimate partner violence: evidence from national population survey